FACTS ABOUT ICELANDIC HISTORY
Manmade cairns (piles of stones) can be seen all around the country. In past times, these cairns served the vital function of guiding travellers along old routes. Some of these striking landmarks have names and stories attached to them. All old cairns in Iceland are protected by law.
One of the four landvætti ("guardian spirits of the country") said to protect the four quarters of Iceland from invasion is a mountain giant (South). The others are a poision-spitting dragon (East), an eagle whose wingspan fills whole valleys (North), and a ferociously bellowing bull (West).
Álagablettir ("enchanted patches") are still found in some fields today: farmers will not mow here on account of the ill consequences that might follow if the elfish huldufólk ("hidden people") within are disturbed. If you walk in a lava field at dusk, you will see how the looming rocks and shadows quickly take on the appearance of otherworldly creatures.
Most of the first Icelandic settlers worshipped the pagan pantheon of gods and goddesses: Þór, Óðinn, Freyr, Freyja and others. The worship of these old gods was not a centralised or organised religion, however: individuals chose which gods they favoured especially.
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