FACTS ABOUT ICELANDIC HISTORY
One of the four landvætti ("guardian spirits of the country") said to protect the four quarters of Iceland from invasion is a mountain giant (South). The others are a poision-spitting dragon (East), an eagle whose wingspan fills whole valleys (North), and a ferociously bellowing bull (West).
Manmade cairns (piles of stones) can be seen all around the country. In past times, these cairns served the vital function of guiding travellers along old routes. Some of these striking landmarks have names and stories attached to them. All old cairns in Iceland are protected by law.
Álagablettir ("enchanted patches") are still found in some fields today: farmers will not mow here on account of the ill consequences that might follow if the elfish huldufólk ("hidden people") within are disturbed. If you walk in a lava field at dusk, you will see how the looming rocks and shadows quickly take on the appearance of otherworldly creatures.
The country discovered by the first Viking settlers in the late 9th century A.D. was a terra incognita, a virgin land. Seafaring Celtic monks may have reached Iceland ahead of the Norsemen but the material evidence for this is equivocal. In any case, these hermits sought solitude rather than a new land to claim and colonise.
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